Poorly-configured MySQL and Bugzilla installations have given attackers full access to systems in the past. Please take the security parts of these guidelines seriously, even for Bugzilla machines hidden away behind your firewall. Be certain to read Chapter 4 for some important security tips.
You should now run checksetup.pl again, this time without the --check-modules switch.
This time, checksetup.pl should tell you that all the correct modules are installed and will display a message about, and write out a file called, localconfig. This file contains the default settings for a number of Bugzilla parameters.
Load this file in your editor. The only value you need to change is $db_pass, the password for the user you will create for your database. Pick a strong password (for simplicity, it should not contain single quote characters) and put it here.
You may need to change the value of webservergroup if your web server does not run in the "apache" group. On Debian, for example, Apache runs in the "www-data" group. If you are going to run Bugzilla on a machine where you do not have root access (such as on a shared web hosting account), you will need to leave webservergroup empty, ignoring the warnings that checksetup.pl will subsequently display every time it is run.
If you are using suexec, you should use your own primary group for webservergroup rather than leaving it empty, and see the additional directions in the suexec section Section 18.104.22.168.
The other options in the localconfig file are documented by their accompanying comments. If you have a slightly non-standard MySQL setup, you may wish to change one or more of the other "$db_*" parameters.
You may also wish to change the names of the priorities, severities, operating systems and platforms for your installation. However, you can always change these after installation has finished; if you then re-run checksetup.pl, the changes will get picked up.
This section deals with configuring your database server for use with Bugzilla. Currently, MySQL (Section 22.214.171.124) and PostgreSQL (Section 126.96.36.199) are available.
The Bugzilla database schema is available at Ravenbrook. This very valuable tool can generate a written description of the Bugzilla database schema for any version of Bugzilla. It can also generate a diff between two versions to help someone see what has changed.
MySQL's default configuration is very insecure. Section 4.2 has some good information for improving your installation's security.
By default, MySQL will only accept packets up to 64Kb in size. If you want to have attachments larger than this, you will need to modify your /etc/my.cnf as below.
If you are using MySQL 4.0 or newer, enter:
[mysqld] # Allow packets up to 1M max_allowed_packet=1M
If you are using an older version of MySQL, enter:
[mysqld] # Allow packets up to 1M set-variable = max_allowed_packet=1M
There is also a parameter in Bugzilla called 'maxattachmentsize' (default = 1000 Kb) that controls the maximum allowable attachment size. Attachments larger than either the 'max_allowed_packet' or 'maxattachmentsize' value will not be accepted by Bugzilla.
This does not affect Big Files, attachments that are stored directly on disk instead of in the database. Their maximum size is controlled using the 'maxlocalattachment' parameter.
By default, words must be at least four characters in length in order to be indexed by MySQL's full-text indexes. This causes a lot of Bugzilla specific words to be missed, including "cc", "ftp" and "uri".
MySQL can be configured to index those words by setting the ft_min_word_len param to the minimum size of the words to index. This can be done by modifying the /etc/my.cnf according to the example below:
[mysqld] # Allow small words in full-text indexes ft_min_word_len=2
Rebuilding the indexes can be done based on documentation found at https://www.mysql.com/doc/en/Fulltext_Fine-tuning.html.
The ft_min_word_len parameter is only supported in MySQL v4 or higher.
You need to add a new MySQL user for Bugzilla to use. (It's not safe to have Bugzilla use the MySQL root account.) The following instructions assume the defaults in localconfig; if you changed those, you need to modify the SQL command appropriately. You will need the $db_pass password you set in localconfig in Section 2.2.1.
We use an SQL GRANT command to create a "bugs" user. This also restricts the "bugs"user to operations within a database called "bugs", and only allows the account to connect from "localhost". Modify it to reflect your setup if you will be connecting from another machine or as a different user.
Run the mysql command-line client.
If you are using MySQL 4.0 or newer, enter:
mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE, LOCK TABLES, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, DROP, REFERENCES ON bugs.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY '$db_pass'; mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
If you are using an older version of MySQL,the LOCK TABLES and CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES permissions will be unavailable and should be removed from the permissions list. In this case, the following command line can be used:
mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, INDEX, ALTER, CREATE, DROP, REFERENCES ON bugs.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY '$db_pass'; mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
By default, MySQL will limit the size of a table to 4GB. This limit is present even if the underlying filesystem has no such limit. To set a higher limit, follow these instructions.
After you have completed the rest of the installation (or at least the database setup parts), you should run the MySQL command-line client and enter the following, replacing $bugs_db with your Bugzilla database name (bugs by default):
mysql> use $bugs_db mysql> ALTER TABLE attachments AVG_ROW_LENGTH=1000000, MAX_ROWS=20000;
The above command will change the limit to 20GB. Mysql will have to make a temporary copy of your entire table to do this. Ideally, you should do this when your attachments table is still small.
This does not affect Big Files, attachments that are stored directly on disk instead of in the database.
If you are using PostgreSQL 8.0.1 or higher, then you will require to use a version of DBD::Pg which is equal to or greater than version 1.41
You need to add a new user to PostgreSQL for the Bugzilla application to use when accessing the database. The following instructions assume the defaults in localconfig; if you changed those, you need to modify the commands appropriately. You will need the $db_pass password you set in localconfig in Section 2.2.1.
On most systems, to create the user in PostgreSQL, you will need to login as the root user, and then
bash# su - postgres
As the postgres user, you then need to create a new user:
bash$ createuser -U postgres -dAP bugs
When asked for a password, provide the password which will be set as $db_pass in localconfig. The created user will have the ability to create databases and will not be able to create new users.
Now, you will need to edit pg_hba.conf which is usually located in /var/lib/pgsql/data/. In this file, you will need to add a new line to it as follows:
host all bugs 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.255 md5
This means that for TCP/IP (host) connections, allow connections from '127.0.0.1' to 'all' databases on this server from the 'bugs' user, and use password authentication (md5) for that user.
If you are using versions of PostgreSQL before version 8, you may also need to edit postgresql.conf , also usually found in the /var/lib/pgsql/data/ folder. You will need to make a single line change, changing
# tcpip_socket = false
tcpip_socket = true
Now, you will need to restart PostgreSQL, but you will need to fully stop and start the server rather than just restarting due to the possibility of a change to postgresql.conf. After the server has restarted, you will need to edit localconfig, finding the $db_driver variable and setting it to Pg and changing the password in $db_pass to the one you picked previously, while setting up the account.
Next, rerun checksetup.pl. It reconfirms that all the modules are present, and notices the altered localconfig file, which it assumes you have edited to your satisfaction. It compiles the UI templates, connects to the database using the 'bugs' user you created and the password you defined, and creates the 'bugs' database and the tables therein.
After that, it asks for details of an administrator account. Bugzilla can have multiple administrators - you can create more later - but it needs one to start off with. Enter the email address of an administrator, his or her full name, and a suitable Bugzilla password.
checksetup.pl will then finish. You may rerun checksetup.pl at any time if you wish.
Configure your web server according to the instructions in the appropriate section. (If it makes a difference in your choice, the Bugzilla Team recommends Apache.) To check whether your web server is correctly configured, try to access testagent.cgi from your web server. If "OK" is displayed, then your configuration is successful. Regardless of which web server you are using, however, ensure that sensitive information is not remotely available by properly applying the access controls in Section 4.3.1. You can run testserver.pl to check if your web server serves Bugzilla files as expected.
To configure your Apache web server to work with Bugzilla, do the following:
Load httpd.conf in your editor. In Fedora and Red Hat Linux, this file is found in /etc/httpd/conf.
Apache uses <Directory> directives to permit fine-grained permission setting. Add the following lines to a directive that applies to the location of your Bugzilla installation. (If such a section does not exist, you'll want to add one.) In this example, Bugzilla has been installed at /var/www/html/bugzilla.
<Directory /var/www/html/bugzilla> AddHandler cgi-script .cgi Options +Indexes +ExecCGI DirectoryIndex index.cgi AllowOverride Limit </Directory>
These instructions: allow apache to run .cgi files found within the bugzilla directory; instructs the server to look for a file called index.cgi if someone only types the directory name into the browser; and allows Bugzilla's .htaccess files to override global permissions.
It is possible to make these changes globally, or to the directive controlling Bugzilla's parent directory (e.g. <Directory /var/www/html/>). Such changes would also apply to the Bugzilla directory... but they would also apply to many other places where they may or may not be appropriate. In most cases, including this one, it is better to be as restrictive as possible when granting extra access.
checksetup.pl can set tighter permissions on Bugzilla's files and directories if it knows what group the webserver runs as. Find the Group line in httpd.conf, place the value found there in the $webservergroup variable in localconfig, then rerun checksetup.pl.
Optional: If Bugzilla does not actually reside in the webspace directory, but instead has been symbolically linked there, you will need to add the following to the Options line of the Bugzilla <Directory> directive (the same one as in the step above):
Without this directive, Apache will not follow symbolic links to places outside its own directory structure, and you will be unable to run Bugzilla.
If you are running Bugzilla on Windows and choose to use Microsoft's Internet Information Services or Personal Web Server you will need to perform a number of other configuration steps as explained below. You may also want to refer to the following Microsoft Knowledge Base articles: 245225 "HOW TO: Configure and Test a PERL Script with IIS 4.0, 5.0, and 5.1" (for Internet Information Services) and 231998 "HOW TO: FP2000: How to Use Perl with Microsoft Personal Web Server on Windows 95/98" (for Personal Web Server).
You will need to create a virtual directory for the Bugzilla install. Put the Bugzilla files in a directory that is named something other than what you want your end-users accessing. That is, if you want your users to access your Bugzilla installation through "http://<yourdomainname>/Bugzilla", then do not put your Bugzilla files in a directory named "Bugzilla". Instead, place them in a different location, and then use the IIS Administration tool to create a Virtual Directory named "Bugzilla" that acts as an alias for the actual location of the files. When creating that virtual directory, make sure you add the "Execute (such as ISAPI applications or CGI)" access permission.
You will also need to tell IIS how to handle Bugzilla's .cgi files. Using the IIS Administration tool again, open up the properties for the new virtual directory and select the Configuration option to access the Script Mappings. Create an entry mapping .cgi to:
<full path to perl.exe >\perl.exe -x<full path to Bugzilla> -wT "%s" %s
c:\perl\bin\perl.exe -xc:\bugzilla -wT "%s" %s
The ActiveState install may have already created an entry for .pl files that is limited to "GET,HEAD,POST". If so, this mapping should be removed as Bugzilla's .pl files are not designed to be run via a webserver.
IIS will also need to know that the index.cgi should be treated as a default document. On the Documents tab page of the virtual directory properties, you need to add index.cgi as a default document type. If you wish, you may remove the other default document types for this particular virtual directory, since Bugzilla doesn't use any of them.
Also, and this can't be stressed enough, make sure that files such as localconfig and your data directory are secured as described in Section 4.3.1.
Your Bugzilla should now be working. Access http://<your-bugzilla-server>/ - you should see the Bugzilla front page. If not, consult the Troubleshooting section, Appendix B.
The URL above may be incorrect if you installed Bugzilla into a subdirectory or used a symbolic link from your web site root to the Bugzilla directory.
Log in with the administrator account you defined in the last checksetup.pl run. You should go through the parameters on the Edit Parameters page (see link in the footer) and see if there are any you wish to change. They key parameters are documented in Section 3.1; you should certainly alter maintainer and urlbase; you may also want to alter cookiepath or requirelogin.
This would also be a good time to revisit the localconfig file and make sure that the names of the priorities, severities, platforms and operating systems are those you wish to use when you start creating bugs. Remember to rerun checksetup.pl if you change it.
Bugzilla has several optional features which require extra configuration. You can read about those in Section 2.3.